The use of the
suffix –gate following
a relevant word to refer to scandals (such as Irangate, or more
has long been a media trope. Most people are already aware of the origin: Watergate,
the shorthand used for the scandal in which the offices of the Democratic
National Committee were burglarized, with an investigation later revealing that
the burglary was covered up by high-level officials in the administration of
U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The name Watergate refers
to the name of the office complex, located in the Foggy Bottom district of
Washington, D.C., consisting of office buildings, apartments, and the Watergate
ultimately led to Nixon resigning from the presidency in August 1974. But by
then, Watergate was
itself used for scandals likened to Watergate for their levels of concealment
“Why obviously?” “Jesus, Doctor!” He was momentarily
indignant. “What sort of a question is that? A Central American Watergate you
want now?” “I only asked.”
— Eric Ambler, Doctor Frigo,
By the time of
Nixon’s resignation, the use of –gate as
a somewhat mocking way to suffix the names of scandals (political or otherwise)
had already taken hold in the American media and continued throughout the
Last week the French
wine industry was in ferment over the disclosure of a fraudulent scheme to
peddle cheap wine as expensive Bordeaux … “You’ll think it’s exaggerating to
say this, but the U.S. had Watergate and now we have our winegate,” a Bordeaux
journalist told Newsweek’s Seth Goldschlager.
10 Sept. 1973
allegedly falsified records, fed incriminating evidence through a paper
shredder and conducted a cover-up so pervasive that one investigator calls it
“Ice Cream Gate.”
18 Aug. 1975
Since obscenity is known to be the most low-investment-high-return
of all businesses, there should be an investigation to ascertain whether
payoffs are blocking enforcement of the law. May we have a burlesk-gate on our hands.
— The Pueblo
Star-Journal, 17 May 1979
Some instances of
the –gate suffix
led to serendipitously punny phrasings that were likely too juicy for a writer
to pass up.
appending –gate to
the last name of Daniel J. Flood, a long-serving U.S. Representative from
Pennsylvania, yielded Floodgate when
accusations surfaced in 1978 that he used his office to direct money and
contracts to favored people and corporations in exchange for kickbacks.
In the 1980s, a
scandal involving sexual misconduct and misappropriation of funds by the
televangelists Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker led to New York Times columnist Russel
Baker to coin the name PearlyGate,
cleverly echoing the phrase pearly
gates, envisioned as the place where one earns entrance to
Heaven as described in Revelation 21:21.
The –gate suffix has
continued to be applied to more recent scandals, generations after its
originator, seemingly with the paradoxical effect of simultaneously magnifying
and diminishing the affair in question.
the name for what was known more descriptively as the Fort Lee Lane Closure
Scandal, in which lanes at the toll plaza on the upper level of the George
Washington Bridge in Fort Lee, New Jersey were closed by members of the
administration of New Jersey governor Chris Christie purportedly as an act of
retribution against Fort Lee’s mayor, Mark Sokolich.
When New England
Patriots quarterback Tom Brady was accused of using underinflated footballs
during the AFC Championship Game against the Indianapolis Colts in January
2015—a violation that ultimately resulted in Brady receiving a four-game
suspension the following season—the scandal became known in the media as Deflategate.
And there are dozens
of others, before and after and in between: Nipplegate (in
which Janet Jackson’s breast was exposed during the Super Bowl halftime
show); Skategate (a
judging scandal regarding the pairs’ figure skating event at the 2002 Winter
Olympics); and Spygate (another
scandal involving the New England Patriots, accused of using video equipment to
record the signals used by their opponents).
For every scandal, it seems, there will always be a
gate. Remember to close it on your way out.
This week, we’re looking at English idioms that feature food and drink words. As there are lots of these idioms, we’re focusing today on idioms containing words for sweet food. Next month, we’ll publish a post on savoury (UK) or savory (US) food idioms.
Scots is one of the three indigenous languages in Scotland, along with English and Scottish Gaelic.
English is spoken throughout the country, Gaelic is mostly spoken in the Highlands and the Western Isles and Scots is spoken all through the Lowlands, the Scottish cities and in the Northern Isles.
Scots has often been mistaken for slang, and it is not widely known as a language in its own right or that it is of Anglo-Saxon origin.
The reality is that Scots has some 60,000 unique words and expressions.
There are many varieties of Scots and some of these have names of their own, like the Doric, used in the north-east. Some others are known as dialects, like the spoken languages in Caithness, Orkney or Shetland, or even the varieties spoken in the cities of Glasgow, Dundee and Edinburgh.
Scots has its own history, a wide variety of unique grammatical features, a huge store of idiomatic expressions and a number of sounds that are never used in English. For these reasons, many linguists and academics today agree that Scots is a language in its own right.
Scots has finally achieved official recognition as a minority language by the European Commission for Regional and Minority languages, and it is accorded special protection by the UK and Scottish Governments. It was even included in the 2011 census, which showed that 1.5 million people identified themselves as speaking or understanding Scots. This only shows that the language is alive and well in the first Century.
Written by Maria Blanca Escudero Fontan, trainee in the Direction of the Directorate B and in TermCoord. Holds a Degree in Translation and Interpretation ( Universidade de Vigo) and a MA in International Studies (USC).
In February 2018, Netflix launched a reboot of Queer Eye, the former Bravo series in which five gay men perform a makeover of a fellow needing help in the areas of fashion, grooming, living space, food, and social grace. The original series aired from 2003 to 2007 and made stars of its “Fab Five,” while bringing the term metrosexual into the lexicon from its use by critics.
Another term that the show brought into the fold was one that didn’t initially see a lot of print use, possibly because editors didn’t know how to spell it: zhuzh, or zhoosh, or tzhuj. (The first two seem to have gained the most traction.)
In general use, ‘zhuzh’ tends to mean “to improve in appearance by way of a slight adjustment.”
A go-to word for Queer Eye’s original fashion guru, Carson Kressley, zhuzh describes the act of making slight improvements or accents to a wardrobe or look (such as by adding a pocket square, teasing one’s hair, or popping a shirt collar).
So many women were coming up to me asking, “How do I look?” or “Can you just zhuzh me?” or “What should I wear?” And I’d say, “Well, I’m trying to pay for my ice cream right now, but I can give you a couple quick tips.” — Carson Kressley, in Main Line Today, 5 Apr. 2017
The new Queer Eye team doesn’t use the term so much, but those who remember the old show fondly still do, both as a noun and a verb (sometimes with up). In general use, the word has transcended fashion to mean something along the lines of “a slight improvement or adjustment” or “to improve in appearance by way of a slight adjustment”:
The reboot is fine company in several contexts, for instance, when it is lending ambient zhuzh to your home while you’re picking up around the place. Half-watching any of its eight episodes, the viewer feels its aspirational anima infuse the room. — Troy Patterson, The New Yorker, 26 Feb. 2018
Recently, we told you about seven easy under-$20 ways to upgrade your space, and now, we’re turning our attention to easy décor improvements. Fiona Byrne, an editor turned interior decorator who recently zhuzhed up spaces for Montauk’s Surf Lodge, tells us her eight favorite ways to kick up an apartment. — New York Magazine, 31 Oct. 2017
Summer is the season of laid-back hairstyles that need nothing more than a spritz of salt spray and a maybe a quick zhuzh before heading out the door. — Samantha Sasso, Refinery29, 5 Dec. 2017
Fellow celebrity hairstylist Chad Wood recently mentioned he loves to use pomade to zhuzh up second-day curls, and if it can give Bellisario results, pomade is firmly on the shopping list. — Rachel Nussbaum, Glamour, 20 July 2017
Fallon and his writers’ greatest innovation to the format was to zhuzh up the guest segments into participatory “games” — like the absurdist physical-comedy bits from Late Night With David Letterman, but with their underlying sense of subversion surgically removed. — Alison Herman, The Ringer, 12 Feb. 2018
Pronounced \ZHOOZH (with the “OO” as in “good”)\, zhuzh sounds onomatopoetic, with a resemblance to other sound-effect words, such as whoosh or zoom, that suggest dynamic movement, or perhaps more appropriately, a ruffling of hair or fabric. Some attribute the word to Polari, a kind of slang used in the British underground performing arts as well as the gay subculture; the OED cites use (with the spelling zhoosh) that dates to 1977.
Only time will tell if zhuzh establishes itself enough to officially add an accent to our famously unkempt language. We’ll keep taking citations, though it may take more than a slight ruffle to make English presentable for polite society.
Words We’re Watching talks about words we are increasingly seeing in use but that have not yet met ourcriteria for entry.
Ages are like every other compound modifier: you hyphenate them before the noun but not after the noun.
A lot of people get confused about when to use hyphens when writing ages, and I think it’s because sometimes an age is a noun, sometimes an age is an adjective that comes before a noun and modifies it, and sometimes an age is an adjective that comes after a noun.
When to Hyphenate Ages
First we’ll talk about when you do hyphenate an age: You do it when the age is acting like a noun and when the age is an adjective that comes before the noun and modifies the noun.
In this example, the age—70-year-old—is used as a noun, and you hyphenate it:
That 70-year-old with a purple hoodie loves Justin Bieber.
Just as you’d say, “That woman with the purple hoodie loves Justin Bieber,” with “woman” as the noun, the age—70-year-old—can take the place of “woman.” When an age is a noun like that, you hyphenate it.
Here’s an example of an age that comes before the noun it modifies. You hyphenate here too:
My 8-year-old neighbor wrote a poem about commas for National Grammar Day.
In that example, “8-year-old” is an adjective that describes the noun, “neighbor.”
When to Not Hyphenate Ages
Now we’ll move on to when you don’t hyphenate ages: When the age is part of an adjective phrase after the noun, you don’t hyphenate it. For example,
Beyoncé is 37 years old.
John’s twin sons are nearly 2 years old.
Neither of those ages are hyphenated.
So to sum up, you hyphenate an age when it’s a noun or when it’s a modifier that comes before a noun.
The main time you don’t hyphenate an age is when it comes after the noun it modifies.
[Note: Chicago style and AP style differ when it comes to ages. Chicago style is to use the word for ages 100 and lower, and AP style is to always use the numeral for ages. Our site uses a modified version of AP style, which is why the example reads “8-year-old” instead of “eight-year-old.”]
As of 2019, most big style guides—including the Associated Press, the Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA style manual, and the APA style manual—accept the usage of the singular they. Whether they approve of it as an indefinite singular pronoun, a specific person’s preferred pronoun, or both, all of these manuals concede that the singular they has a place in our modern world. Merriam-Webster even introduced the gender-neutral honorific Mx. to their unabridged dictionary, forever ending the question of what to call someone whose gender is nonbinary (i.e., not male or female).
When Grammarly has the choice between digging in its heels on a language rule or adapting along with language, it adapts. So, let’s talk about they in particular and gender-neutral pronouns as a whole, and why they’re important to binary and nonbinary folks alike.
First, Some Terminology
Since it’s Pride Month, we’d like to start by defining a few key terms in this discussion. Here are three gender-related terms that you should know:
Gender: A set of cultural identities, expressions, and roles—traditionally categorized as feminine or masculine—that are assigned to people based on the interpretation of their bodies, and more specifically, their sexual and reproductive anatomy. Since gender is a social construction, it is possible for people to reject or modify the assignments given to them and develop something that feels truer and more just to themselves.
Gender binary: A socially constructed system of viewing gender as male or female, in which no other possibilities for gender are believed to exist. The gender binary does not take into account the diversity of gender identities and gender expressions among all people, and is oppressive to anyone who does not conform to dominant societal gender norms. Nonbinary: Adjective describing a person who identifies as neither male nor female.
Of course, these three terms are just the beginning of a discussion about gender, but for the purposes of talking about gender-neutral or third-gender pronouns, they’re a great start. If you have more questions about gender or sexuality, consult GLSEN’s resources on the subject.Here’s a tip: Want to make sure your writing always looks great? Grammarly can save you from misspellings, grammatical and punctuation mistakes, and other writing issues on all your favorite websites.Your writing, at its best.Be the best writer in the office.GET GRAMMARLY
Now, to return to pronouns . . .
One of the great lies about the English language is that it remains static. Grammar pedants and trolls generally operate under a series of assumptions about language, which may or may not reflect current usage and accepted norms. In the linguistics community, there is a term for this view of language: prescriptivism.
Unfortunately for prescriptivists, English is constantly changing—and always has been. Some words that grammar pedants scoff at as obnoxious neologisms were in fact coined as long ago as the nineteenth century. Take “dude” for example. Reviled by grammar trolls the world over, this term has provoked the ire of multiple generations of fuddy-duddies. But did you know that it has its roots in late nineteenth-century British dandyism? Although the term originally described a cultural trend in England, it eventually came to mean “clueless city-dweller” to American cowboys and ranchers (as Mental Floss notes, this is also the origin of the “dude ranch”). However, by WWI, “dude” had flip-flopped again to its current meaning—a cool guy.
Even if we adhere to certain rules to make communication easier for people across regions, dialects, and levels of writing proficiency, the language will eventually evolve. The singular they is simply another way English is changing for the shorter, the more empathetic, and the better. As we’ve mentioned before, the singular they is not even a new phenomenon. Merriam-Webster includes usage examples of the singular they dating back to Shakespeare, with notable additions from the likes of Jane Austen and even the traditionalist W. H. Auden. The singular they is nothing new, but in making our language more inclusive of people of a myriad of genders, this simple word is becoming more and more important.
LGBTQ Harassment and Personal Gender Pronouns
According to a 2015 GLSEN study, more than two-thirds of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students hear homophobic remarks at school frequently or often. Of these students, 40.5 percent reported hearing harassing remarks specifically targeting transgender students frequently or often. For transgender, genderqueer, genderfluid, and other nonbinary students, this can have extreme consequences, from lower GPAs to missed classes to suicide.
What’s a personal gender pronoun, you ask? GLSEN defines personal gender pronouns (PGPs for short) as “The pronoun or set of pronouns that a person would like to be called by when their proper name is not being used.” For people who identify as male or female, this is generally he or she, but trans, nonbinary, or gender non-conforming folks may use a variety of pronouns. They could use the singular gender-neutral “they,” but they could also use one of these options:
Although we won’t touch on all the pronoun options listed here, you can see that there are many. So how do you know which one to use? Ask! Asking someone their personal gender pronoun is easy. Just say something like “What pronouns do you use?” or “Is this pronoun right for you?” Most people will be happy to inform or correct you, especially when you ask them early on in your relationship.
Since we’re focusing on the singular gender-neutral they here, it’s important to note that many people at different points of the gender spectrum use “they.” When you’re using it in a sentence, you can say something like this: “They are a talented artist. I really enjoyed their painting of a flower in art class yesterday.”
But Wait, “They” Is Useful for Everyone!
Now that we’ve talked briefly about how to use they for people who have chosen it as their PGP, let’s talk about how it can help people who identify as he or she. Merriam-Webster sums up the situation well in their usage note for they:
They, their, them, themselves: English lacks a common-gender third person singular pronoun that can be used to refer to indefinite pronouns (as everyone, anyone, someone).
Although English has many great qualities, it’s never been great with indefinite pronouns. Traditionally, he was the default pronoun for a person whose gender you didn’t know, as in this quote from Thomas Huxley:
“Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.”—Thomas Huxley
But, as many have pointed out, gendering all unknown people as male is sexist and inaccurate. That’s why Merriam-Webster, the Oxford English Dictionary, and the American Heritage Dictionary have recently added notes supporting the use of the singular they for a person whose gender you don’t know. “Despite the apparent grammatical disagreement between a singular antecedent like someone and the plural pronoun them, the construction is so widespread both in print and in speech that it often passes unnoticed,”says the American Heritage Dictionary, in their usage note on the subject.
Admittedly, using the singular they in a formal context may still cause some raised eyebrows, so be careful if you’re submitting a paper to a particularly traditional teacher or professor. But the tides are turning, and English will soon be more efficient because of usages like this:
If Sally or George got a cold, I would have sympathy for them.
Note that, if we did not use the singular they, that sentence would read:
If Sally or George got a cold, I would have sympathy for him.
Or, if we tried to make some awkward amalgam of current language norms, we might write:
If Sally or George got a cold, I would have sympathy for him or her.
Furthermore, if Sally or George identified as a gender other than male or female, even the above Frankenstein-ed sentence would be incorrect. After all, your name does not determine your gender or your preferred gender pronouns.
Luckily, using the singular they makes English a more efficient language, and it helps us to avoid awkward sentence constructions. More importantly, it allows you to avoid making assumptions about the gender of a person you don’t know.
Their Pronoun, Themself
Of course, not everyone will agree that it’s time to formally accept the singular gender-neutral they. People who would use they as their preferred gender pronoun have long been the subjects of harassment and discrimination, although things are changing. Grammarly supports the individual choice of pronouns and is using the hashtag #writeproud this month to elevate the visibility of all gender expressions and sexualities.
What has been your experience with personal gender pronouns? Tweet what makes you proud with #WriteProud, or use one of these downloadable posters to celebrate!